Monday, 26 December 2011

NFC : The Next Generation Technology….

    As the technology is improving day by day , sophisticated and advancements of technology is taking. Once there was infrared technology used to transfer data between two mobile devices later on advancement of technology took place and Bluetooth came in to existence. Bluetooth was the favorite technology for a longer time in the market now it’s the time for NFC the all new technology …..
What is a Near field communication(NFC)…..?
Near field communication (NFC) is a set of standards for smartphones and similar devices to establish radio communication with each other by touching them together or bringing them into close proximity, usually no more than a few centimeters. Present and anticipated applications include contactless transactions, data exchange, and simplified setup of more complex communications such as Wi-Fi Communication is also possible between an NFC device and an unpowered NFC chip, called a "tag".
Why is NFC important..?
Reach and availability: NFC has the potential over time to be integrated into every mobile handset in the world. This would give the technology a potential reach as global as the mobile phone itself. By integrating NFC technology into a mobile handset, users could gain access to a number of new services via their phone.
Variety of use: NFC can be used for a number of tasks, from payment
for goods to ticketing and from pairing devices to sharing information or discovering new services. Examples of these applications are outlined in this document.
Ease of use: Because NFC only requires that two devices touch in order to communicate, NFC can simplify many tasks, from opening a web browser on a mobile phone to pairing two Bluetooth devices automatically to accessing wireless hotspots simply and easily.
Security: NFC requires a user to actively wave or hold their mobile device against another device or NFC station to activate a service or to share information. In so doing, the technology requires the user to make a positive action to confirm the transaction or exchange. In addition it is possible to build multiple levels of security into an NFC enabled device.
Value added services: NFC enables users to access value added services that would otherwise be unavailable with a traditional ticket or payment card. Just as users of prepay mobile services are able to access their current credit balance through the phone’s menu system, so users of an NFC enabled phone will be able to access similar information through their device. Furthermore, NFC enabled devices could access the mobile network to add credit to the device when it runs out or is low, or alternatively on a set date each week or month.
Applications of NFC:
Ticketing and Payment: Many major cities around the world use contactless payment systems within the transport infrastructure. These systems rely on Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) smart cards to provide access to transport services and to enable quick and convenient payment.Typically, a user purchases a plastic card with a certain monetary value embedded on a chip within the card. As the user accesses the public transport system, the cost of the ticket is taken from the card, leaving a new card balance. Once the card has no value, the user can either discard it or “top up” the balance by adding more money to the card to enable further journeys.
This approach has great benefits in terms of ease of use and speed of access to transport systems. There is no need for users to purchase a card every day. Access to online top ups and monthly access fees also ensure less queuing at ticketing booths and the need for less staff. Ticket machines do not need to be emptied and single use tickets are not discarded.Whilst the service works well, the “smart” cards used within the system are not actuall ythat smart. This is where NFC can add value to this existing application.By replacing a smart card with a NFC enabled mobile device, users can access all of the services they have with a smart card, with the added functionality of a user interface providing additional information (for example their current balance or the number of journeys left), as well as access via the mobile network to online top up facilities at the touch of a button. The phone could also use current mobile network technology to access the latest traffic information (such as when trains are delayed or cancelled) or mapping information.Users of an NFC enabled mobile device are not necessarily limited to topping up a card. It is possible to add a credit card element to an NFC device, enabling the user to “wave to pay” at any compatible station or retail outlet.
It is also possible to add multiple separate credit or debit cards to an NFC mobile device. In this scenario, the mobile device becomes a “virtual wallet”, carrying a number of different cards, some credit, some debit, some loyalty, within the device. Ultimately, the NFC mobile device could replace the need for a user to carry a wallet at all – providing a central facility for former cash transactions, debit card purchases and credit card facilities – all from one mobile device.Because of the ubiquity of the mobile phone – no one leaves home without it – the user does not have to remember another card, or a wallet or a loyalty card. All of this information could be contained within the mobile device.
Touch to pair/Touch to share: A further application for NFC takes advantage of the data sharing capability to enable the simple and seamless transfer of data from one device to another, simply by touching the devices together.A number of activities associated with the transfer of data between devices require some degree of user interaction to set up. For example, many Bluetooth devices require a “pairing” process to take place before the devices can be used together.
Whilst this is relatively straight forward, the functionality may not be immediately accessible within the menu system and the pairing process can be an inhibitor to using the technology.The most up to date core specification for the Bluetooth standard includes the capability to pair devices via NFC. Simply put, the whole process of activating Bluetooth on both sides, searching, waiting, pairing and authorisation on both sides can be replaced by touching the two devices together. This provides the user with a simple and engaging way to link Bluetooth enabled devices.In a similar manner, users of NFC could “touch to access” a wireless LAN hotspot. Instead of the lengthy process of searching for a hotspot, accessing it and paying for use, a user could simply touch an NFC compatible wireless LAN point and the whole process could be automated, including the payment of any cost from the “virtual wallet” on the device.
As the mobile device increasingly becomes the home for digital content, so the ability to easily share this content will become more compelling. NFC can enable an environment where people can touch devices to share business cards, touch to download their photographs to a printer, or touch to share their music with a friend.Furthermore, the NFC enabled mobile device could be used to receive information or a promotion from an advertisement. By embedding an NFC chip within a billboard advertisement or beside a product on the shelf of a retail store, users could touch to receive additional information. For example, an advertisement for a new record could allow users to touch to receive the track listings, download a free ringtone, or access the artist’s mobile internet site. The NFC technology has the potential to significantly impact the marketing and promotions industry, since by touching to receive information the user is proactively taking an interest in a product or service. By sharing information both ways, the marketer can offer users an incentive in exchange for information or interest in a product or service.
Identity Management/Business Processes: Almost every office or factory based worker is required to carry an identity tag to access working premises. As businesses become more complex and global in nature, many workers require access to multiple premises.
Managing this process can be complicated, even more so in environments where there are different levels of security for different workers.NFC can allow identity management to be added to a mobile device, providing one single integrated solution for identity management. The mobile device can be used to provide access to certain premises and, of course, deny access to others. Importantly, access can be upgraded over the mobile or wireless network, meaning workers are not required to physically visit a site to change their user profile.A further related application would be relevant anywhere that people are required to perform multiple tasks within a busy organisation. For example, a care worker that makes a number of home visits during a working day may “touch to inform” that a particular visit has been completed. The worker can then be assigned a new task based on what is most urgent or where the
professional is located at that time.A security guard could touch on entering and exiting a room, providing a digital footpath of his movements during a patrol. A courier could touch on delivery of a parcel to receive local traffic information and directions to the next collection point.
What is required for NFC to succeed?
Key Factors for the success of NF: The success of NFC depends upon the creation of a complex yet interoperable environment, supported by a number of different parties. First, there needs to be mobile devices that support the system. This relies on mobile handset manufacturers producing NFC compatible devices. These will also need to come from different vendors, offering the market choice and differentiation. The first NFC compatible mobile devices are now available on the market. Mobile network operators will also need to support NFC. Access to additional data services, and the potential revenues that these could bring through the mobile network, is a critical value add of NFC and the support of the mobile operator community is required to facilitate this. Banks and credit card companies, along with transport operators will also need to engage with NFC.
Delivering a required high level of perceived and real security will be essential to the success of NFC and the banks and credit companies have a critical role to play, ensuring the roll out of payment services to NFC devices. Retailers, from shops to restaurants, and from newsagents to coffee shops will need to support and enhance their current offerings with an NFC element. In much the same way as the development of chip and PIN solutions led to the roll out of new hardware in retail, so the development of NFC will facilitate new retail hardware. Retailers will require “touch pads” to facilitate “wave to pay/touch to pay” solutions. Whilst this may seem like a significant investment for retailers, many are already rolling out NFC compatible technology to support payment through transportation cards or the new generation of “wave to pay” credit and debit cards.
NFC is an extension of this technology, compatible with the current standards and offering customers further choices as to how to pay. Of course, the roll out of NFC technology within retail is likely to take place over time. Retailers near public transport stations may be early adopters of the technology to provide a service to their customers that are already using contactless solutions for transport. As mass adoption takes place, with increasing numbers of devices commercially available, the roll out of NFC to retail outlets will become ubiquitous. Finally, the developer community is also critically important to the development of NFC. An active developer community with the right tools in place to quickly and effectively bring new solutions to market can add impetus to the technology and offer easily accessible NFC applications to end users.
Comparison with Bluetooth and other Applications:
NFC and Bluetooth are both short-range communication technologies which are integrated into mobile phones. NFC operates at slower speeds than Bluetooth, but consumes far less power and doesn’t require pairing.
NFC sets up faster than standard Bluetooth, but is not faster than Bluetooth low energy. With NFC, instead of performing manual configurations to identify devices, the connection between two NFC devices is automatically established quickly: in less than a tenth of a second. The maximum data transfer rate of NFC (424 kbit/s) is slower than that of Bluetooth V2.1 (2.1 Mbit/s). With a maximum working distance of less than 20 cm, NFC has a shorter range, which reduces the likelihood of unwanted interception. That makes NFC particularly suitable for crowded areas where correlating a signal with its transmitting physical device (and by extension, its user) becomes difficult.clip_image007
In contrast to Bluetooth, NFC is compatible with existing passive RFID (13.56 MHz ISO/IEC 18000-3) infrastructures. NFC requires comparatively low power, similar to the Bluetooth V4.0 low energy protocol. However, when NFC works with an unpowered device (e.g. on a phone that may be turned off, a contactless smart credit card, a smart poster, etc.), the NFC power consumption is greater than that of Bluetooth V4.0 Low Energy, this is because illuminating the passive tag needs extra power.
Standardization bodies and industry projects:
NFC was approved as an ISO/IEC standard on December 8, 2003 and later as an ECMA standard.NFC is an open platform technology standardized in ECMA-340 and ISO/IEC 18092. These standards specify the modulation schemes, coding, transfer speeds and frame format of the RF interface of NFC devices, as well as initialization schemes and conditions required for data collision-control during initialization for both passive and active NFC modes. Furthermore, they also define the transport protocol, including protocol activation and data-exchange methods. The air interface for NFC is standardized in:
ISO/IEC 18092 / ECMA-340
Near Field Communication Interface and Protocol-1 (NFCIP-1)
ISO/IEC 21481 / ECMA-352
Near Field Communication Interface and Protocol-2 (NFCIP-2)
NFC phones that you can buy today:
  • Nexus S
  • Google Nexus S 4G
  • Samsung Galaxy sII (not all versions)
  • Samsung Galaxy Note (not all versions)
  • Galaxy Nexus
  • HTC Amaze 4G
  • Turkcell T20.
S40 & J2ME
  • Nokia 6212 Classic
  • Nokia 6131 NFC
  • Nokia 6216 Classic (Nokia has confirmed the cancellation of this phone in February 2010)
  • Nokia 3220 + NFC Shell
  • Nokia 5140(i) + NFC Shell
S60 & J2ME
  • Nokia 600 (Officially canceled])
  • Nokia 603
  • Nokia 700
  • Nokia 701
  • Nokia C7
  • Nokia C7 and the Nokia Astound and Nokia Oro variants, with the NFC feature enabled starting with the Symbian Anna release of the OS.
  • Samsung S5230 Tocco Lite/Star/Player One/Avila[
  • Samsung SGH-X700 NFC
  • Samsung D500E
  • Samsung Wave 578
  • Nokia N9
  • Blackberry Bold 9790 (Codename Bellagio)
  • BlackBerry Bold 9900/9930 (Codename Dakota/Montana)
  • BlackBerry Torch 9810/9860
  • Blackberry Curve 9350/9360/9370
Windows Mobile 6.0
  • Benq T80
Other mobiles
  • SAGEM my700X Contactless
  • LG 600V contactless
  • Motorola L7 (SLVR)
  • Sagem Cosyphone
  • Sonim XP1301 CORE NFC

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